The Needle Palm Tree, scientific name Rhapidophyllum hystrix or Rhapidophylum hystrix, is one of the most cold hardiest palm trees that can tolerate cold down to -5F. It is a great palm for landscape in USDA zones 5-11.
This palm can be grown in states like Alaska, Alabama, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Tennessee and more.
Needle Palm Tree Profile
Scientific name: Rhapidophyllum hystrix or Rhapidophylum hystrix
Common names: The Needle Palm is also known as Porcupine Palm.
Origin: It is native to the southeastern United States.
Appearance: It doesn’t form a trunk, instead has stems growing very tightly together from a single base. Stems are slender, about 6-7 inches in diameter.
Leaves are palmate, or fan-shaped, deep green color, about 2ft long and 4ft wide. About 10-13 leaves grow on smooth petioles 2-3ft long, covered with fiber and numerous sharp needle-like spines produced between the leaves. Fiber husk protects the palm from cold winter weather conditions.
Spines grow to about 3-4 inches long, very slender, range in color from dark brown to black. They protect the stem growing point from browsing animals. Each leaf has about 10-16 leaflets 18 inches long and 2 inches wide, with square tips.
Flowers/Fruits: In spring or early summer, the Needle Palm produces small yellow to brownish flowers that grow in clusters at the top of the short inflorescence. The Needle Palm is dioecious, male and female flowers are born on separate plants.
Flowers are followed by fleshy drupes. Fruits are oblong, fuzzy, reddish brown, about 1 inch in diameter. They grow close to the petiole surrounded by fiber and sharp needles.
Growth Rate: Slow. Rhapidophyllum hystrix is a small shrubby fan palm that can grows up to 5-10 ft tall and 1-5ft wide.
Outdoor/Indoor Use: Both.
Cold Tolerance: Needle Palm is extremely hardy and can tolerate cold down to -15F. It is great for growing in USDA Zones 5b (-15 to -10 F) to 11 (above 40 F).
Light Req: Partial shade to Full sun.
Water Req: Moderate. The Needle Palm needs moderate watering but is very tough in a drought conditions after establishing.
Maintenance: Easy. To prevent nutritional deficiency, apply good quality palm fertilizer that has continuous release formula twice a year during growing season.
Propagation: Propagated by seeds.
If you don’t live in the warm climate and still want to have beautiful palm trees in you backyard, get this book – “Betrock’s Cold Hardy Palms.” It has comprehensive profiles with photos for 82 palm species, capable of growing in climates colder than USDA Hardiness Zone 10.